In this tutorial, you will learn how to easily install and configure Samba file server on Ubuntu 22.04. Samba is an opensource suite that implements the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. Microsoft Windows operating systems and the OS/2 operating system use SMB to perform client-server networking for file and printer sharing and associated operations. Running on a Unix system, it allows Windows to share files and printers on the Unix host, and it also allows Unix users to access resources shared by Windows systems. It is therefore a very useful networking tool for anyone who has both Windows and Unix systems on their network.
Easily install and configure Samba File Server on Ubuntu 22.04
Samba can be run as:
- An Active Directory (AD) or NT4 domain member
- A standalone server
- An NT4 Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or Backup Domain Controller (BDC)
In this setup, we will run Samba as a standalone file server on Ubuntu 22.04.
Step through the following steps to learn how to easily install and configure Samba file server on Ubuntu 22.04.
Install Samba on Ubuntu 22.04
To easily install and configure Samba File Server on Ubuntu 22.04, you first need to install Samba packages by running the commands below;
apt install samba smbclient cifs-utils
Configure Samba File Server on Ubuntu 22.04
Once the Samba package is installed, proceed to configure Samba file server on Ubuntu 22.04. As already stated, in this setup, we will run Samba as a standalone file server on Ubuntu 22.04. This means that Samba is not configured as a member of any directory service and thus, local system database will be used for authenticating users to access shared files.
Create a Shared Directory/Folder
Create a directory where you will place files to be shared. You can create a public or a private shared folders.
For example, we use
/smb-private as our shared directories in this setup.
We will allow public access to the public folder and a few users to access the private folder.
Configure Samba File Server on Ubuntu 22.04
Open the Samba configuration file for editing;
Global Samba configuration options
Below is our global Samba configuration, with comment lines removed.
[global] unix charset = UTF-8 workgroup = WORKGROUP server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu) log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m log level = 1 max log size = 1000 logging = file panic action = /usr/share/samba/panic-action %d server role = standalone server obey pam restrictions = yes unix password sync = yes passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u passwd chat = *Enter\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *Retype\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *password\supdated\ssuccessfully* . pam password change = yes map to guest = bad user usershare allow guests = yes
man smb.conf for a description of the configuration options used.
Configure file or printer sharing
For now, we will only be configuring file sharing. Hence, at the end of the Samba configuration file, add the share name and the configuration options.
In above, we created two directories, a public and a private one. We will set the public share as publicly accessible and private one will require authentication to access it.
Public Share Configuration
Example public share configurations.
[publicshare] path = /smb-public writable = yes guest ok = yes guest only = yes force create mode = 775 force directory mode = 775
Private Share Configuration
Example Private share configuration.
[privateshare] path = /smb-private writable = yes guest ok = no valid users = @smbinternal force create mode = 770 force directory mode = 770 inherit permissions = yes
Create Samba Share User Group
The above Private share will only allow users of the
smbinternal group to access the share.
Therefore, let us create an smbinternal group and add specific users to this group to allow access to the private share.
Update the permissions of the Shares
Change the group of the shared private directory;
chgrp -R smbinternal /smb-private/
chgrp -R smbinternal /smb-public
Set the permissions of the directory;
chmod 2770 /smb-private/
chmod 2775 /smb-public
The value 2 above represents SGID bit. This makes the new files/folders created to inherit the group of the parent directory instead setting it to the users primary group.
Next, create local accounts for the users you would like to give access to the private share. The users doesnt need to have the shell.
useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin demouser
Add the user to the smbinternal group;
usermod -aG smbinternal demouser
Create SMB password for the user;
smbpasswd -a demouser
Enable the Samba account:
smbpasswd -e demouser
Verifying the Samba configuration
It is recommended that you verify the Samba configuration each time you update the
/etc/samba/smb.conf file using the
You can simply execute it as follows:
Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf Loaded services file OK. Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions # Global parameters [global] log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m logging = file map to guest = Bad User max log size = 1000 obey pam restrictions = Yes pam password change = Yes panic action = /usr/share/samba/panic-action %d passwd chat = *Enter\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *Retype\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *password\supdated\ssuccessfully* . passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u server role = standalone server server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu) unix password sync = Yes usershare allow guests = Yes idmap config * : backend = tdb [publicshare] force create mode = 0775 force directory mode = 0775 guest ok = Yes guest only = Yes path = /smb-public read only = No [privateshare] force create mode = 0770 force directory mode = 0770 inherit permissions = Yes path = /smb-private read only = No valid users = @smbinternal
In case of any error, fix it before you can proceed.
systemctl restart smbd
Create test files/folders on the shares;
mkdir /smb-private/demofolder-priv /smb-public/demofolder-pub
touch /smb-private/demofile-priv /smb-public/demofile-pub
Allow Remote Access to Samba
To allow remote access to Samba from a specific network;
ufw allow from 192.168.59.0/24 to any app Samba
Accessing SMB Shares from Clients
To learn how to access SMB share from various clients, follow the guide below;
That brings us to the end of our tutorial on how to easily install and configure Samba File Server on Ubuntu 22.04.