In this tutorial, we are going to learn how to install Docker CE on Debian 12. Docker is a platform that enables developers and system administrators to build, run, and share applications in container format. A container is a unit of software that packages code and its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably across computing environments.
Table of Contents
Install Docker CE Debian 12
The exits two editions of docker available.
Docker CE and
- Docker CE (Community Edition) is the open-source, community supported version of Docker and is available for free.
- Docker EE (Enterprise Edition) is a commercial/premium version of Docker CE and is support by Docker Inc.
There are different methods in which you can install Docker CE on Debian 12;
- Installing Docker CE on Debian 12 from Docker Repositories
- Installing Docker CE manually using the DEB binary package
- Installing Docker CE using Docker Installation Script (Beyond the scope of this tutorial).
Installing Docker CE from Docker Repositories
To install Docker CE from Docker, you first need to install some required packages by executing the command below. Some of the package may already be installed though;
apt install apt-transport-https ca-certificates \ curl gnupg-agent software-properties-common
Next, install Docker repository GPG signing key.
curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | \ sudo gpg --dearmor > /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/docker.gpg
Install Docker repository on Debian 12.
echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/debian $(lsb_release -sc) stable" \ > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker-ce.list
After that, update package cache.
Install Docker CE and other tools including
containerd.io, An open and reliable container runtime.
apt install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io
Note that, even if you install just docker-ce package, other tools like
containerd.io will be installed along with it.
apt install docker-ce
Installing Docker CE using DEB Binary Package
If you want to go the manual way, you can simply download Docker CE DEB binary package for your specific system version from https://download.docker.com/linux/debian/dists/bookworm.
For example, in this case grab the
containerd.io, you would simply pull them as follows;
You can then install them using the
dpkg package manager. Be sure to install
apt install ./docker-ce-cli_24.0.2-1~debian.12~bookworm_amd64.deb
apt install ./containerd.io_1.6.21-1_amd64.deb
apt install ./docker-ce_24.0.2-1~debian.12~bookworm_amd64.deb
Checking Installed Docker Version
To check the version of installed Docker, simply run the command;
Docker version 24.0.2, build cb74dfc
Starting Docker Service
To start and enable Docker and Containerd service to run on system boot;
systemctl enable --now docker
systemctl status docker
● docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/docker.service; enabled; preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Fri 2023-06-16 20:29:39 EAT; 54min ago TriggeredBy: ● docker.socket Docs: https://docs.docker.com Main PID: 6123 (dockerd) Tasks: 9 Memory: 44.3M CPU: 567ms CGroup: /system.slice/docker.service └─6123 /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd:// --containerd=/run/containerd/containerd.sock Jun 16 20:29:38 bookworm systemd: Starting docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine... Jun 16 20:29:38 bookworm dockerd: time="2023-06-16T20:29:38.633036521+03:00" level=info msg="Starting up" Jun 16 20:29:38 bookworm dockerd: time="2023-06-16T20:29:38.844929428+03:00" level=info msg="Loading containers: start." Jun 16 20:29:39 bookworm dockerd: time="2023-06-16T20:29:39.158737769+03:00" level=info msg="Loading containers: done." Jun 16 20:29:39 bookworm dockerd: time="2023-06-16T20:29:39.278964922+03:00" level=info msg="Docker daemon" commit=659604f graphdriver=overlay2 version=24.0.2 Jun 16 20:29:39 bookworm dockerd: time="2023-06-16T20:29:39.279291221+03:00" level=info msg="Daemon has completed initialization" Jun 16 20:29:39 bookworm dockerd: time="2023-06-16T20:29:39.324481047+03:00" level=info msg="API listen on /run/docker.sock" Jun 16 20:29:39 bookworm systemd: Started docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine.
Running Docker as a non-root user
If you run Docker as standard system user, you may get such an error;
docker run hello-world
docker: Got permission denied while trying to connect to the Docker daemon socket at unix:///var/run/docker.sock: ... /var/run/docker.sock: connect: permission denied. See 'docker run --help'.
Therefore, if you need to run docker as non-root user, simply add the user you want to run docker as to docker group or simply, grant the user sudo rights. For example to add current logged in user to
sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
Once you have added the user to the Docker group, log out and login again to have the user group membership re-evaluated.
You can then run docker as the standard user.
Verifying Docker CE installation
To verify that Docker CE is running well, you can try running the
hello-world container image.
docker run hello-world
NOTE: If you still get the same
permission denied error after adding user to docker group, logout and login again and you should be able to run docker as a standard user.
Unable to find image 'hello-world:latest' locally latest: Pulling from library/hello-world 0e03bdcc26d7: Pull complete Digest: sha256:8e3114318a995a1ee497790535e7b88365222a21771ae7e53687ad76563e8e76 Status: Downloaded newer image for hello-world:latest Hello from Docker! This message shows that your installation appears to be working correctly. To generate this message, Docker took the following steps: 1. The Docker client contacted the Docker daemon. 2. The Docker daemon pulled the "hello-world" image from the Docker Hub. (amd64) 3. The Docker daemon created a new container from that image which runs the executable that produces the output you are currently reading. 4. The Docker daemon streamed that output to the Docker client, which sent it to your terminal. To try something more ambitious, you can run an Ubuntu container with: $ docker run -it ubuntu bash Share images, automate workflows, and more with a free Docker ID: https://hub.docker.com/ For more examples and ideas, visit: https://docs.docker.com/get-started/
To list running containers;
docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES 4083300e3660 hello-world "/hello" 5 minutes ago Exited (0) 5 minutes ago recursing_tereshkova
There you go. You have successfully installed Docker CE on Debian 12. You can now explore Docker further.