In this tutorial, we are going to learn how to install ClamAV on Ubuntu 22.04. ClamAV is an open source antivirus engine for detecting trojans, viruses, malware, adwares, rootkits and other malicious threats.
Some of the features of ClamAV include;
- built-in support for various archive formats, including Zip, Tar, Gzip, Bzip2, OLE2, Cabinet, CHM, BinHex, SIS and others.
- built-in support for almost all mail file formats
- built-in support for ELF executables and Portable Executable files compressed with UPX, FSG, Petite, NsPack, wwpack32, MEW, Upack and obfuscated with SUE, Y0da Cryptor and others;
- built-in support for popular document formats including Microsoft Office and Mac Office files, HTML, RTF and PDF.
- support multiple signature languages such as hash-based signature matching, wildcards, boolean logic and any custom rules written in Bytecode language.
ClamAV includes a multi-threaded scanner daemon, command line utilities for on demand file scanning and automatic signature updates. One of its main uses is on mail servers as a server-side email virus scanner.
Install ClamAV on Ubuntu 22.04
To begin with, update system package cache.
Install ClamAV on Ubuntu 22.04
The default Ubuntu 22.04 repositories contains the latest stable release version of ClamAV. You can simply install it and its utilities by running the command below;
apt install clamav clamav-daemon -y
Update the ClamAV Signature Database
For scanning to work, you need am updated virus database. There are two options for updating ClamAV database:
clamav-freshclam: updates the database from Internet. This is recommended with Internet access.
Offline update (clamav-data)for systems with no direct internet access.
Update Signature Database with
If you have internet access, you can use
clamav-freshclam to update the ClamAV virus signature database.
To use this method, stop the
clamav-freshclam service (if it is running) and execute
freshclam, the virus database update tool.
systemctl stop clamav-freshclam
Then update the virus database;
Sample database update output;
Mon Mar 21 07:19:13 2022 -> ClamAV update process started at Mon Mar 21 07:19:13 2022 Mon Mar 21 07:19:13 2022 -> daily.cvd database is up-to-date (version: 26487, sigs: 1976398, f-level: 90, builder: raynman) Mon Mar 21 07:19:13 2022 -> main database available for download (remote version: 62) Time: 1m 12s, ETA: 0.0s [========================>] 162.58MiB/162.58MiB Mon Mar 21 07:20:28 2022 -> Testing database: '/var/lib/clamav/tmp.8fbebf674c/clamav-b8def16dc3ba20739095aed70d6cdbac.tmp-main.cvd' ... Mon Mar 21 07:20:36 2022 -> Database test passed. Mon Mar 21 07:20:36 2022 -> main.cvd updated (version: 62, sigs: 6647427, f-level: 90, builder: sigmgr) Mon Mar 21 07:20:36 2022 -> bytecode database available for download (remote version: 333) Time: 0.6s, ETA: 0.0s [========================>] 286.79KiB/286.79KiB Mon Mar 21 07:20:37 2022 -> Testing database: '/var/lib/clamav/tmp.8fbebf674c/clamav-cf0b110c2821d6c681985aa7aa63eb77.tmp-bytecode.cvd' ... Mon Mar 21 07:20:37 2022 -> Database test passed. Mon Mar 21 07:20:37 2022 -> bytecode.cvd updated (version: 333, sigs: 92, f-level: 63, builder: awillia2) Mon Mar 21 07:20:37 2022 -> ^Clamd was NOT notified: Can't connect to clamd through /var/run/clamav/clamd.ctl: No such file or directory
Next, start the
clamav-freshclam service so it keeps updating the signature database in the background whenever.
systemctl start clamav-freshclam
Ensure the service is enabled to run on system boot;
systemctl enable clamav-freshclam
freshclam downloads the ClamAV databases, CVDs, and place them on under,
ls -alh1 /var/lib/clamav/
total 219M drwxr-xr-x 2 clamav clamav 4.0K Mac 21 07:20 . drwxr-xr-x 70 root root 4.0K Mac 21 07:17 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 clamav clamav 287K Mac 21 07:20 bytecode.cvd -rw-r--r-- 1 clamav clamav 56M Mac 21 07:18 daily.cvd -rw-r--r-- 1 clamav clamav 69 Mac 21 07:17 freshclam.dat -rw-r--r-- 1 clamav clamav 163M Mac 21 07:20 main.cvd
Also restart the Clam AntiVirus userspace daemon;
systemctl restart clamav-daemon
Offline Database Update
If your system do not have internet access, you can consider setting up a private local mirror using the cvdupdate tool.
Clamscan CLI Options and Example Usage
Clamscan is used to scan files and directories for viruses. From the man pages, the clamscan command syntax is:
clamscan [options] [file/directory/-]
Some of the clamscan command options and their example usage is illustrated below;
Print help information using
Note: Options marked with [=yes/no(*)] can be optionally followed by =yes or =no. If they get called without the boolean argument the scanner will assume ‘yes’. The asterisk marks the default internal setting for a given option.
Scan specific directory using ClamAV;
Scan specific file using ClamAV;
Do not display summary at the end of scanning.
clamscan --no-summary /home/
Print infected files only (
clamscan -i /
Skip printing OK files (
clamscan -o /home/
Sound a bell on virus detection (
clamscan --bell -i /home
Scan directories recursively (
clamscan --bell -i -r /home
Save scan report to FILE (
clamscan --bell -i -r /home -l home-scan.txt
Scan files listed line by line in FILE (
clamscan -i -f /tmp/scan
Remove infected files (
--remove[=yes/no(*)]). Be careful as this removes file completely.
clamscan -r --remove /home/USER
Move infected files into DIRECTORY
(--move=DIRECTORY). Directory must be writable for the user or unprivileged user running clamscan.
clamscan -r -i --move=/home/USER/infected /home/
Copy infected files into DIRECTORY (–copy=DIRECTORY). Directory must be writable for the user or unprivileged user running clamscan.
clamscan -r -i --copy=/home/USER/infected /home/
There is quite long list of options for various usage of clamscan. Consult
man clamscan for more details.
How to Test ClamAV
You can test the efficiency of ClamAV to detect malicious threats by downloading anti-malware EICAR test file to your specific system directory.
wget -P /tmp https://secure.eicar.org/eicar_com.zip
Next, scan the /tmp directory;
clamscan -ir /tmp/
Sample scan output;
/tmp/eicar_com.zip: Win.Test.EICAR_HDB-1 FOUND ----------- SCAN SUMMARY ----------- Known viruses: 8608469 Engine version: 0.103.5 Scanned directories: 8 Scanned files: 5 Infected files: 1 Total errors: 13 Data scanned: 0.00 MB Data read: 0.00 MB (ratio 0.00:1) Time: 19.413 sec (0 m 19 s) Start Date: 2022:03:21 07:46:24 End Date: 2022:03:21 07:46:43
ClamAV Return Codes
The following are the exit return codes for ClamAV.
- 0 : No virus found.
- 1 : Virus(es) found.
- 2 : Some error(s) occurred.
Limiting Clamscan CPU Usage
clamscan can be CPU intensive especially if it scanning a large directory.
To limit the clamscan CPU time to certain levels, you can use two tools;
nice: lowers the priority of clamscan (limits relative cpu time).
cpulimit: limits absolute cpu time.
To use nice command,
nice -n 15 clamscan && clamscan -ir /
As long as no other process requires cputime, clamscan will maximize it. But as soon as another process with a higher priority needs cputime, clamscan will lost it.
cpulimit -z -e clamscan -l 15 & clamscan -ir /
Limits clamscan cpu time to 15% when scanning the entire root directory.