Install Apache Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8

0
37

Follow through this tutorial to learn how to install Apache Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8. Apache Tomcat is an opensource java based HTTP web server that implements  the Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages, Java Expression Language and Java WebSocket technologies.

Install Apache Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8

Install OpenJDK on Rocky Linux 8

Apache Tomcat requires a Java Standard Edition Runtime Environment (JRE) version 8 or later. Since OpenJDK 11 Runtime Environment is available on the default Rocky Linux repos, we will install it. We install other packages including wget and tar that will be used later on in the guide.

dnf install java-11-openjdk wget tar

Once the installation completes, you can run the command below to verify the version.

java -version
openjdk version "11.0.12" 2021-07-20 LTS
OpenJDK Runtime Environment 18.9 (build 11.0.12+7-LTS)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM 18.9 (build 11.0.12+7-LTS, mixed mode, sharing)

Download Apache Tomcat Binary Distribution

Navigate to  Apache Tomcat download’s page and grab Apache Tomcat binary distribution tarball. As of this writing, Apache Tomcat 10.0.8 is the current stable release.

wget https://downloads.apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-10/v10.0.8/bin/apache-tomcat-10.0.8.tar.gz

Install Apache Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8

Once the download of the binary distribution is complete, installation of Apache Tomcat using the binary distribution is as easy as extracting it to some specific directory, which in this case, we used /opt/tomcat directory.

mkdir /opt/tomcat
tar xzf apache-tomcat-10.0.8.tar.gz -C /opt/tomcat --strip-components=1

The command above extracts the contents of apache-tomcat-9.0.36.tar.gz tarball to the installation directory, /opt/tomcat.

ls -1 /opt/tomcat/
bin
BUILDING.txt
conf
CONTRIBUTING.md
lib
LICENSE
logs
NOTICE
README.md
RELEASE-NOTES
RUNNING.txt
temp
webapps
work

Set Apache Tomcat Environment Variables

Various environment variables are used by the Tomcat startup scripts to prepare the command that runs Tomcat daemon.

Set CATALINA_HOME  environment variable to point to the base path of the Tomcat installation, which in this case is, /opt/tomcat.

echo 'export CATALINA_HOME="/opt/tomcat"' > /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh

Depending on the Java package installed, set JRE_HOME (if you installed JRE) or JAVA_HOME (if you installed JDK) environment variable for the Java version you have installed.

Since we installed JDK, create the JAVA_HOME environment as follows.

Locate the path to the installed Java version using alternatives command.

alternatives --list | grep java
java                	auto  	/usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-11.0.12.0.7-0.el8_4.x86_64/bin/java
jre_openjdk         	auto  	/usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-11.0.12.0.7-0.el8_4.x86_64
jre_11              	auto  	/usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-11.0.12.0.7-0.el8_4.x86_64

From our output above, the path is /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-11.0.12.0.7-0.el8_4.x86_64.

Once you have the path, create the environment variable.

echo 'export JAVA_HOME="/usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-11.0.12.0.7-0.el8_4.x86_64"' >> /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh

Reload the environment variables set above.

source /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh

Create Apache Tomcat System User

Just like any other web server, Apache Tomcat should not be run with a privileged user. Hence, create a system user for Apache Tomcat as follows;

useradd -r -d /opt/tomcat/ -s /bin/false -c "Apach Tomcat User" tomcat

Next, you need to set the user and group ownership of Tomcat directory to tomcat user.

chown -R tomcat: /opt/tomcat/

Configure Tomcat Web Management Accounts

Create Tomcat Web Management User

Define a user for the web management of Tomcat Admin/Manager User interfaces.

This can be done by editing the /opt/tomcat/conf/tomcat-users.xml file and adding the following highlighted lines below between the </tomcat-users> tag.

vim /opt/tomcat/conf/tomcat-users.xml
<tomcat-users
...
<!--
  <role rolename="tomcat"/>
  <role rolename="role1"/>
  <user username="tomcat" password="must-be-changed" roles="tomcat"/>
  <user username="both" password="must-be-changed" roles="tomcat,role1"/>
  <user username="role1" password="must-be-changed" roles="role1"/>
-->
  <role rolename="admin-gui"/>
  <role rolename="manager-gui"/>
  <user username="admin" password="[email protected]" roles="admin-gui,manager-gui"/>
</tomcat-users>

Replace the password and usernames accordingly.

Configure Tomcat to allow remote connection to Manager and Host Manager apps.

Edit the configuration files below for Manager and Host Manager respectively and enter the IP addresses of the remote server you are accessing the Tomcat from. The IPs are separated by a pipe, |.

In this case, 192.168.60.1, is the IP address of the server to allow access of Tomcat from.

Update for Manager;

vim /opt/tomcat/webapps/manager/META-INF/context.xml
...
<Context antiResourceLocking="false" privileged="true" >
  <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteAddrValve"
          allow="127\.\d+\.\d+\.\d+|::1|0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1|192.168.60.1" />
...
</Context>

Update for Host Manager;

vim /opt/tomcat/webapps/host-manager/META-INF/context.xml
...
<Context antiResourceLocking="false" privileged="true" >
  <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteAddrValve"
         allow="127\.\d+\.\d+\.\d+|::1|0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1|192.168.60.1" />
...
</Context>

Save and exit the configuration file after changes are made.

Allow Tomcat Through Firewall

To allow external access to Tomcat, you need to open TCP port 8080 on Firewalld, if it is running;

firewall-cmd --add-port=8080/tcp --permanent
firewall-cmd --reload

Running Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8

To run Apache Tomcat in standalone mode, execute the /opt/tomcat/bin/startup.sh. script.

/opt/tomcat/bin/startup.sh

Sample output;

Using CATALINA_BASE:   /opt/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /opt/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /opt/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-11.0.12.0.7-0.el8_4.x86_64
Using CLASSPATH:       /opt/tomcat/bin/bootstrap.jar:/opt/tomcat/bin/tomcat-juli.jar
Using CATALINA_OPTS:   
Tomcat started.

Check catalina.out log file or any other log file under /opt/tomcat/logs/*.

tail /opt/tomcat/logs/catalina.out

26-Jul-2021 18:16:57.225 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDirectory Deploying web application directory [/opt/tomcat/webapps/docs]
26-Jul-2021 18:16:57.259 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDirectory Deployment of web application directory [/opt/tomcat/webapps/docs] has finished in [34] ms
26-Jul-2021 18:16:57.259 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDirectory Deploying web application directory [/opt/tomcat/webapps/examples]
26-Jul-2021 18:16:57.992 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDirectory Deployment of web application directory [/opt/tomcat/webapps/examples] has finished in [733] ms
26-Jul-2021 18:16:57.993 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDirectory Deploying web application directory [/opt/tomcat/webapps/host-manager]
26-Jul-2021 18:16:58.042 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDirectory Deployment of web application directory [/opt/tomcat/webapps/host-manager] has finished in [49] ms
26-Jul-2021 18:16:58.043 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDirectory Deploying web application directory [/opt/tomcat/webapps/manager]
26-Jul-2021 18:16:58.063 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDirectory Deployment of web application directory [/opt/tomcat/webapps/manager] has finished in [21] ms
26-Jul-2021 18:16:58.084 INFO [main] org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol.start Starting ProtocolHandler ["http-nio-8080"]
26-Jul-2021 18:16:58.129 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start Server startup in [1865] milliseconds

Accessing Tomcat Web Interface

You can now access your Apache tomcat from the browser using the address, http://server-hostname-or-ip:8080.

Install Apache Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8

Click Manager App to access the Tomcat Web Application Manager. When prompted for credentials, use the ones you set above;

Install Apache Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8

Click Host Manager, to access Tomcat virtual host manager.

Install Apache Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8

Running Apache Tomcat as a service

To be able to run Apache tomcat as a service and ensure it runs on system reboots, you need to create a systemd service unit file it as follows.

cat > /etc/systemd/system/tomcat.service << 'EOL'
[Unit]
Description=Apache Tomcat Server
After=syslog.target network.target

[Service]
Type=forking
User=tomcat
Group=tomcat

Environment=CATALINA_PID=/opt/tomcat/temp/tomcat.pid
Environment=CATALINA_HOME=/opt/tomcat
Environment=CATALINA_BASE=/opt/tomcat

ExecStart=/opt/tomcat/bin/catalina.sh start
ExecStop=/opt/tomcat/bin/catalina.sh stop

RestartSec=10
Restart=always
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOL

Replace the paths accordingly as per your installation. Save and exit the file.

Reload systemd configurations

systemctl daemon-reload

Stop the initial tomcat started with the script above, /opt/tomcat/bin/startup.sh.

ps aux | grep tomcat | grep -v grep | awk '{print $2}' | xargs -I {} kill -9 {}

Reset the ownership of the logs directory;

chown -R tomcat: /opt/tomcat/logs/

Start and enable Tomcat systemd service;

systemctl enable --now tomcat

Check the status;

systemctl status tomcat
● tomcat.service - Apache Tomcat Server
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/tomcat.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Mon 2021-07-26 18:37:15 EAT; 1s ago
  Process: 4812 ExecStart=/opt/tomcat/bin/catalina.sh start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 4823 (java)
    Tasks: 14 (limit: 4938)
   Memory: 54.6M
   CGroup: /system.slice/tomcat.service
           └─4823 /usr/bin/java -Djava.util.logging.config.file=/opt/tomcat/conf/logging.properties -Djava.util.logging.manager=org.apache.juli.ClassLoaderLogManager -Djdk>

Jul 26 18:37:15 rocky8.kifarunix-demo.com systemd[1]: Starting Apache Tomcat Server...
Jul 26 18:37:15 rocky8.kifarunix-demo.com systemd[1]: Started Apache Tomcat Server.

And that marks the end of our guide on how to install Apache Tomcat on Rocky Linux 8.

Reference

Apache Tomcat.10 Doc -RUNNING.txt

Related Tutorials

Install Apache Guacamole on Rocky Linux 8

Install Apache Tomcat 9 on Ubuntu 20.04

Install Apache Tomcat 9 on Debian 10/Debian 9

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here