How to Deploy Ceph Storage Cluster on AlmaLinux

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Follow through this post to learn how to deploy Ceph storage cluster on AlmaLinux. Ceph is a scalable distributed storage system designed for cloud infrastructure and web-scale object storage. It can also be used to provide Ceph Block Storage as well as Ceph File System storage.

As of this writing, Ceph 18 (code named Reef) is the current stable release.

We are using AlmaLinux 9.3 (Shamrock Pampas Cat) in this guide.

Deploy Ceph Storage Cluster on AlmaLinux

The Ceph Storage Cluster Daemons

Ceph Storage Cluster is made up of different daemons eas performing specific role.

  • Ceph Object Storage Daemon (OSD, ceph-osd)
    • It provides ceph object data store.
    • It also performs data replication , data recovery, rebalancing and provides storage information to Ceph Monitor.
    • At least an OSD is required per storage device.
  • Ceph Monitor (ceph-mon)
    • It maintains maps of the entire Ceph cluster state including monitor map, manager map, the OSD map, and the CRUSH map.
    • manages authentication between daemons and clients.
    • A Ceph cluster must contain a minimum of three running monitors in order to be both redundant and highly-available. 
  • Ceph Manager (ceph-mgr)
    • keeps track of runtime metrics and the current state of the Ceph cluster, including storage utilization, current performance metrics, and system load.
    • manages and exposes Ceph cluster web dashboard and API.
    • At least two managers are required for HA.
  • Ceph Metadata Server (MDS):
    • Manages metadata for the Ceph File System (CephFS). Coordinates metadata access and ensures consistency across clients.
    • One or more, depending on the requirements of the CephFS.
  • RADOS Gateway (RGW):
    • Also called “Ceph Object Gateway”
    • is a component of the Ceph storage system that provides object storage services with a RESTful interface. RGW allows applications and users to interact with Ceph storage using industry-standard APIs, such as the S3 (Simple Storage Service) API (compatible with Amazon S3) and the Swift API (compatible with OpenStack Swift).

Ceph Storage Cluster Deployment Methods

There are different methods you can use to deploy Ceph storage cluster.

  • cephadm leverages container technology (specifically, Docker containers) to deploy and manage Ceph services on a cluster of machines.
  • Rook deploys and manages Ceph clusters running in Kubernetes, while also enabling management of storage resources and provisioning via Kubernetes APIs.
  • ceph-ansible deploys and manages Ceph clusters using Ansible.
  • ceph-salt installs Ceph using Salt and cephadm.
  • jaas.ai/ceph-mon installs Ceph using Juju.
  • Install Ceph via Puppet.
  • Ceph can also be installed manually.

Use of cephadm and rooks are the recommended methods for deploying Ceph storage cluster.

Ceph Depolyment Requirements

Depending on the deployment method you choose, there are different requirements for deploying Ceph storage cluster

In this tutorial, we will use cephadm to deploy Ceph storage cluster on AlmaLinux

Below are the requirements for deploying Ceph storage cluster via cephadm;

All the required dependencies are installed automatically by the bootstrap process.

Prepare Ceph Nodes for Ceph Storage Cluster Deployment on AlmaLinux

Our Ceph Storage Cluster Deployment Architecture

The diagram below depicts our ceph storage cluster deployment architecture. In a typical production environment, you would have at least 3 monitor nodes as well as at least 3 OSDs.

ceph deployment arch

Ceph Storage Nodes Hardware Requirements

Check the hardware recommendations page for the Ceph storage cluster nodes hardware requirements.

Storage Devices for Creating Ceph OSDs

Each Ceph OSD node in our architecture above has unallocated raw disk of 50 GB each.

lsblk

Sample output;

NAME        MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINTS
vda         252:0    0  50G  0 disk 
├─vda1      252:1    0   1G  0 part /boot
└─vda2      252:2    0  49G  0 part 
  ├─rl-root 253:0    0  45G  0 lvm  /
  └─rl-swap 253:1    0   4G  0 lvm  [SWAP]
vdb         252:16   0  50G  0 disk 
vdc         252:32   0  50G  0 disk 
vdd         252:48   0  50G  0 disk 

Set Hostnames and Update Hosts File

To begin with, setup up your nodes hostnames;

hostnamectl set-hostname node01

Set the respective hostnames on other nodes.

If you are not using DNS for name resolution, then update the hosts file accordingly.

For example, in our setup, each node hosts file should contain the lines below;

less /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
192.168.122.240 node01
192.168.122.55 node02
192.168.122.229 node03
192.168.122.152 node04
192.168.122.241 node05
192.168.122.116 node06

Set Time Synchronization

Ensure that the time on all the nodes is synchronized. Thus install Chrony on each and set it up such that all nodes uses the same NTP server. It might already be installed!

dnf install chrony -y

Edit the Chrony configuration and set your NTP server by replacing the NTP server pools with your NTP server address.

vim /etc/chrony/chrony.conf

Define your NTP Server. Replace ntp.kifarunix-demo.com with your respective NTP server address. Otherwise, use the global time servers if you don’t have your own.

...
# pool ntp.ubuntu.com        iburst maxsources 4
# pool 0.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org iburst maxsources 1
# pool 1.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org iburst maxsources 1
# pool 2.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org iburst maxsources 2
pool ntp.kifarunix-demo.com iburst
...

Restart Chronyd

systemctl restart chronyd

Install SSH Server on Each Node

Ceph deployment through cephadm utility requires that an SSH server is installed on all the nodes.

AlmaLinux comes with SSH server already installed. If not, install and start it as follows;

dnf install openssh-server
systemctl enable --now sshd

Install Python3

Python is required to deploy Ceph on AlmaLinux. Python 3 is installed by default on AlmaLinux;

python -V
Python 3.9.18

Install LVM2 on AlmaLinux

LVM2 is required for Ceph to manage OSDs (Object Storage Devices) on the host.

You can install using the command below;

dnf install lvm2 -y

Install Docker CE on Each Node

The cephadm utility is used to bootstrap a Ceph cluster and to manage ceph daemons deployed with systemd and Docker containers.

Thus, on each Node, install Docker. You can follow the guide below to install Docker on AlmaLinux;

Install Docker on Rocky Linux 8|9

Enable Root Login on Other Nodes from Ceph Admin Node

In order to add other nodes to the Ceph cluster using Ceph Admin Node, you will have to use the root user account.

Thus, on the Ceph Monitor, Ceph OSD nodes, enable root login from the Ceph Admin node.

Ensure access to SSH via root is restricted. For now, I will just enable root SSH login.

vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config
#PermitRootLogin prohibit-password
PermitRootLogin yes

Save and exit the file.

Reload ssh;

systemctl reload sshd

Setup Ceph Storage Cluster on AlmaLinux

Install cephadm Utility on Ceph Admin Node

On the Ceph admin node, you need to install the cephadm utility. In this guide, we are using node01 as ceph admin node.

Cephadm installs and manages a Ceph cluster using containers and systemd, with tight integration with the CLI and dashboard GUI.

  • cephadm only supports Octopus and newer releases.
  • cephadm is fully integrated with the new orchestration API and fully supports the new CLI and dashboard features to manage cluster deployment.
  • cephadm requires container support (podman or docker) and Python 3.

To install cephadm on AlmaLinux 9;

CEPH_RELEASE=18.2.0
curl -sLO https://download.ceph.com/rpm-${CEPH_RELEASE}/el9/noarch/cephadm

Make the binary executable;

chmod +x ./cephadm

Next, execute the commands below to install cephadm for Ceph Reef on AlmaLinux;

./cephadm add-repo --release reef
./cephadm install

Confirm the installation of cephadm command.

which cephadm

You should see the path to the cephadm binary printed, /usr/sbin/cephadm.

The command will also install podman. So whichever it will find first between it and Docker, it will use it.

Initialize Ceph Cluster Monitor On Ceph Admin Node

Your nodes are now ready to deploy a Ceph storage cluster. As such, it is time to bootstrap the Ceph cluster in order to create the first Ceph monitor daemon on our first node, node01.

Thus, run the command below, substituting the IP address with that of the Ceph admin node, which also doubles up as our ceph monitor node01 in this guide..

cephadm bootstrap --mon-ip 192.168.122.240
Creating directory /etc/ceph for ceph.conf
Verifying podman|docker is present...
Verifying lvm2 is present...
Verifying time synchronization is in place...
Unit chronyd.service is enabled and running
Repeating the final host check...
podman (/usr/bin/podman) version 4.6.1 is present
systemctl is present
lvcreate is present
Unit chronyd.service is enabled and running
Host looks OK
Cluster fsid: f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
Verifying IP 192.168.122.240 port 3300 ...
Verifying IP 192.168.122.240 port 6789 ...
Mon IP `192.168.122.240` is in CIDR network `192.168.122.0/24`
Mon IP `192.168.122.240` is in CIDR network `192.168.122.0/24`
Internal network (--cluster-network) has not been provided, OSD replication will default to the public_network
Pulling container image quay.io/ceph/ceph:v18...
Ceph version: ceph version 18.2.0 (5dd24139a1eada541a3bc16b6941c5dde975e26d) reef (stable)
Extracting ceph user uid/gid from container image...
Creating initial keys...
Creating initial monmap...
Creating mon...
Waiting for mon to start...
Waiting for mon...
mon is available
Assimilating anything we can from ceph.conf...
Generating new minimal ceph.conf...
Restarting the monitor...
Setting mon public_network to 192.168.122.0/24
Wrote config to /etc/ceph/ceph.conf
Wrote keyring to /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring
Creating mgr...
Verifying port 9283 ...
Verifying port 8765 ...
Verifying port 8443 ...
Waiting for mgr to start...
Waiting for mgr...
mgr not available, waiting (1/15)...
mgr not available, waiting (2/15)...
mgr not available, waiting (3/15)...
mgr not available, waiting (4/15)...
mgr is available
Enabling cephadm module...
Waiting for the mgr to restart...
Waiting for mgr epoch 5...
mgr epoch 5 is available
Setting orchestrator backend to cephadm...
Generating ssh key...
Wrote public SSH key to /etc/ceph/ceph.pub
Adding key to root@localhost authorized_keys...
Adding host node01...
Deploying mon service with default placement...
Deploying mgr service with default placement...
Deploying crash service with default placement...
Deploying ceph-exporter service with default placement...
Deploying prometheus service with default placement...
Deploying grafana service with default placement...
Deploying node-exporter service with default placement...
Deploying alertmanager service with default placement...
Enabling the dashboard module...
Waiting for the mgr to restart...
Waiting for mgr epoch 9...
mgr epoch 9 is available
Generating a dashboard self-signed certificate...
Creating initial admin user...
Fetching dashboard port number...
Ceph Dashboard is now available at:

	     URL: https://node01:8443/
	    User: admin
	Password: amw3p3yy2e

Enabling client.admin keyring and conf on hosts with "admin" label
Saving cluster configuration to /var/lib/ceph/f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730/config directory
Enabling autotune for osd_memory_target
You can access the Ceph CLI as following in case of multi-cluster or non-default config:

	sudo /usr/sbin/cephadm shell --fsid f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730 -c /etc/ceph/ceph.conf -k /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring

Or, if you are only running a single cluster on this host:

	sudo /usr/sbin/cephadm shell 

Please consider enabling telemetry to help improve Ceph:

	ceph telemetry on

For more information see:

	https://docs.ceph.com/en/latest/mgr/telemetry/

According to the documentation, the bootstrap command;

  • Create a monitor and manager daemon for the new cluster on the localhost.
  • Generate a new SSH key for the Ceph cluster and add it to the root user’s /root/.ssh/authorized_keys file.
  • Write a copy of the public key to /etc/ceph/ceph.pub.
  • Write a minimal configuration file to /etc/ceph/ceph.conf. This file is needed to communicate with the new cluster.
  • Write a copy of the client.admin administrative (privileged!) secret key to /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring.
  • Add the _admin label to the bootstrap host. By default, any host with this label will (also) get a copy of /etc/ceph/ceph.conf and /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring.

As you can see, cephadm used podman container management tool, podman (/usr/bin/podman) version 4.6.1 is present, from the bootstrap command output.

You can see created containers;

podman ps
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                                                                                      COMMAND               CREATED        STATUS        PORTS       NAMES
b0001264bf0e  quay.io/ceph/ceph:v18                                                                      -n mon.node01 -f ...  3 minutes ago  Up 3 minutes              ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730-mon-node01
673b69975d89  quay.io/ceph/ceph:v18                                                                      -n mgr.node01.gvh...  3 minutes ago  Up 3 minutes              ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730-mgr-node01-gvhmuc
4d4739e59495  quay.io/ceph/ceph@sha256:4ce43f6b683448acc5d45ef184be9a44a569cf9c0019d6bb21472523aa52873c  -n client.ceph-ex...  3 minutes ago  Up 3 minutes              ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730-ceph-exporter-node01
9123d699b6a9  quay.io/ceph/ceph@sha256:4ce43f6b683448acc5d45ef184be9a44a569cf9c0019d6bb21472523aa52873c  -n client.crash.n...  3 minutes ago  Up 3 minutes              ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730-crash-node01
0be1d3e87064  quay.io/prometheus/node-exporter:v1.5.0                                                    --no-collector.ti...  3 minutes ago  Up 3 minutes              ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730-node-exporter-node01
3a6e81492858  quay.io/prometheus/prometheus:v2.43.0                                                      --config.file=/et...  2 minutes ago  Up 2 minutes              ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730-prometheus-node01
c7f4e180775c  quay.io/prometheus/alertmanager:v0.25.0                                                    --cluster.listen-...  2 minutes ago  Up 2 minutes              ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730-alertmanager-node01
177cc82138c4  quay.io/ceph/ceph-grafana:9.4.7                                                            /bin/bash             2 minutes ago  Up 2 minutes              ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730-grafana-node01

If you are using Docker, then list the containers using;

docker ps

Similarly, systemd unit files are also created for these containers;

systemctl list-units 'ceph*'
  UNIT                                                                   LOAD   ACTIVE SUB     DESCRIPTION                                                       
  ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730@alertmanager.node01.service  loaded active running Ceph alertmanager.node01 for f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
  ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730@ceph-exporter.node01.service loaded active running Ceph ceph-exporter.node01 for f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
  [email protected]         loaded active running Ceph crash.node01 for f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
  [email protected]       loaded active running Ceph grafana.node01 for f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
  ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730@mgr.node01.gvhmuc.service    loaded active running Ceph mgr.node01.gvhmuc for f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
  [email protected]           loaded active running Ceph mon.node01 for f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
  ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730@node-exporter.node01.service loaded active running Ceph node-exporter.node01 for f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
  ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730@prometheus.node01.service    loaded active running Ceph prometheus.node01 for f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730   
  ceph-f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730.target                       loaded active active  Ceph cluster f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
  ceph.target                                                            loaded active active  All Ceph clusters and services

LOAD   = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
SUB    = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.
10 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.

Enable Ceph CLI

When bootstrap command completes, a command for accessing Ceph CLI is provided. Execute that command to access Ceph CLI;

/usr/sbin/cephadm shell \
	--fsid f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730 \
	-c /etc/ceph/ceph.conf \
	-k /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring

This drops you onto Ceph container CLI;

You can run the ceph commands eg to check the Ceph status;

ceph -s
  cluster:
    id:     f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
    health: HEALTH_WARN
            OSD count 0 < osd_pool_default_size 3
 
  services:
    mon: 1 daemons, quorum node01 (age 6m)
    mgr: node01.gvhmuc(active, since 4m)
    osd: 0 osds: 0 up, 0 in
 
  data:
    pools:   0 pools, 0 pgs
    objects: 0 objects, 0 B
    usage:   0 B used, 0 B / 0 B avail
    pgs: 

You can exit the ceph CLI by pressing Ctrl+D or type exit and press ENTER.

There are other ways in which you can access the Ceph CLI. For example, you can run Ceph CLI commands using cephadm command.

cephadm shell -- ceph -s

Or You could install Ceph CLI tools on the host;

cephadm add-repo --release reef
cephadm install ceph-common

With this method, then you can just ran the Ceph commands easily;

ceph -s

Copy SSH Keys to Other Ceph Nodes

Copy the SSH key generated by the bootstrap command to all the monitor and OSD nodes root user account. Ensure Root Login is allowed on the Ceph monitor node.

for i in {02..06}; do sudo ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub root@node$i; done

Drop into Ceph CLI

You can drop into the Ceph CLI to execute the next commands.

sudo /usr/sbin/cephadm shell \
	--fsid f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730 \
	-c /etc/ceph/ceph.conf \
	-k /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring

Or if you installed the ceph-common package, no need to drop into the cli as you can directly execute the ceph commands from the terminal.

Add Other Ceph Monitor Nodes to Ceph Cluster

At this point, we have just provisioned Ceph Admin node only. You can list all the hosts known to the Ceph ochestrator (ceph-mgr) using the command below;

ceph orch host ls

Sample output;

HOST        ADDR             LABELS  STATUS  
ceph-admin  192.168.122.240  _admin          
1 hosts in cluster

By default, cephadm will deploy 5 monitor daemons on arbitrary hosts. It is recommended to deploy five monitors if there are five or more nodes in your cluster.

To allow deployment of monitor daemons on arbitrary hosts, execute the command below to add the nodes to the cluster;

for i in {02..03}; do ceph orch host add node$i; done

Sample command output;

Added host 'node02' with addr '192.168.122.55'
Added host 'node03' with addr '192.168.122.229'

You should now have three nodes in the cluster.

Next, label the nodes with its role.

ceph orch host label add node01 mon01
ceph orch host label add node02 mon02
ceph orch host label add node03 mon03

Confirm the labelling;

ceph orch host ls
HOST    ADDR             LABELS        STATUS  
node01  192.168.122.240  _admin,mon01          
node02  192.168.122.55   mon02                 
node03  192.168.122.229  mon03                 
3 hosts in cluster

If you want to manually add monitors, then you need to disable automated monitor deployment, by running this command:

ceph orch apply mon --unmanaged

To deploy each additional monitor:

ceph orch daemon add mon *<host1:ip>

Add Ceph OSD Nodes to Ceph Cluster

Similarly, add the OSD Nodes to the cluster;

ceph orch host add node04
ceph orch host add node05
ceph orch host add node06

Define their respective labels;

for i in {04..06}; do ceph orch host label add node$i osd$i; done

List Ceph Cluster Nodes;

You can list the Ceph cluster nodes;

ceph orch host ls

Sample output;

HOST    ADDR             LABELS        STATUS  
node01  192.168.122.240  _admin,mon01          
node02  192.168.122.55   mon02                 
node03  192.168.122.229  mon03                 
node04  192.168.122.152  osd04                 
node05  192.168.122.241  osd05                 
node06  192.168.122.116  osd06                 
6 hosts in cluster

Create Ceph OSDs from Attached Storage Devices

In our setup, we have 3 unallocated raw disks of 50G on each OSD node to be used as bluestore for OSD daemons.

You can list the devices that are available on the OSD nodes for creating OSDs using the command below;

ceph orch device ls

A storage device is considered available if all of the following conditions are met:

  • The device must have no partitions.
  • The device must not have any LVM state.
  • The device must not be mounted.
  • The device must not contain a file system.
  • The device must not contain a Ceph BlueStore OSD.
  • The device must be larger than 5 GB.

Sample output;

HOST    PATH      TYPE  DEVICE ID   SIZE  AVAILABLE  REFRESHED  REJECT REASONS  
node04  /dev/vdb  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago                     
node04  /dev/vdc  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago                     
node04  /dev/vdd  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago                     
node05  /dev/vdb  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago                     
node05  /dev/vdc  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago                     
node05  /dev/vdd  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago                     
node06  /dev/vdb  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago                     
node06  /dev/vdc  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago                     
node06  /dev/vdd  hdd              50.0G  Yes        5s ago

You can add all the available devices to ceph OSDs at once or just add them one by one.

To attach them all at once;

ceph orch apply osd --all-available-devices --method {raw|lvm}

Use raw method if you are using raw disks. otherwise, if you are using LVM disks, use lvm method.

Command output;

Scheduled osd.all-available-devices update...

Note that when you add devices using this approach, then;

  • If you add new disks to the cluster, they will be automatically used to create new OSDs.
  • In the event that an OSD is removed, and the LVM physical volume is cleaned, a new OSD will be generated automatically.

If you wish to prevent this behavior (i.e., disable the automatic creation of OSDs on available devices), use the 'unmanaged' parameter:

ceph orch apply osd --all-available-devices --unmanaged=true

To manually create an OSD from a specific device on a specific host:

ceph orch daemon add osd <host>:<device-path>

NOTE: The deployment of OSDs with --all-available-devices is generally used for smaller clusters. For larger clusters, use the OSD specification file.

Check Ceph Cluster Health

To verify the health status of the ceph cluster, simply execute the command ceph s on the admin node or even on each OSD node (if you have installed cephadm/ceph commands there).

To check Ceph cluster health status from the admin node;

ceph -s

After sometime, you should see such an output;

  cluster:
    id:     f14cb896-889a-11ee-abf4-525400ac8730
    health: HEALTH_OK
 
  services:
    mon: 5 daemons, quorum node01,node02,node03,node04,node06 (age 8m)
    mgr: node01.gvhmuc(active, since 83m), standbys: node02.gpynef
    osd: 9 osds: 9 up (since 38s), 9 in (since 74s)
 
  data:
    pools:   1 pools, 1 pgs
    objects: 2 objects, 449 KiB
    usage:   639 MiB used, 449 GiB / 450 GiB avail
    pgs:     1 active+clean

Check OSDs;

ceph osd tree
ID  CLASS  WEIGHT   TYPE NAME        STATUS  REWEIGHT  PRI-AFF
-1         0.43918  root default                              
-5         0.14639      host node04                           
 0    hdd  0.04880          osd.0        up   1.00000  1.00000
 4    hdd  0.04880          osd.4        up   1.00000  1.00000
 7    hdd  0.04880          osd.7        up   1.00000  1.00000
-3         0.14639      host node05                           
 1    hdd  0.04880          osd.1        up   1.00000  1.00000
 3    hdd  0.04880          osd.3        up   1.00000  1.00000
 6    hdd  0.04880          osd.6        up   1.00000  1.00000
-7         0.14639      host node06                           
 2    hdd  0.04880          osd.2        up   1.00000  1.00000
 5    hdd  0.04880          osd.5        up   1.00000  1.00000
 8    hdd  0.04880          osd.8        up   1.00000  1.00000

Get a list of Ceph services;

ceph orch ps
NAME                  HOST    PORTS             STATUS         REFRESHED  AGE  MEM USE  MEM LIM  VERSION  IMAGE ID      CONTAINER ID  
alertmanager.node01   node01  *:9093,9094       running (18m)     2m ago  88m    16.0M        -  0.25.0   c8568f914cd2  db6532ab83d6  
ceph-exporter.node01  node01                    running (89m)     2m ago  89m    7054k        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  4d4739e59495  
ceph-exporter.node02  node02                    running (19m)     7m ago  19m    15.9M        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  86f8b6c06fad  
ceph-exporter.node03  node03                    running (19m)     7m ago  19m    25.4M        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  3cebac8c8354  
ceph-exporter.node04  node04                    running (14m)     3m ago  14m    25.2M        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  c6e64e48a377  
ceph-exporter.node05  node05                    running (13m)     3m ago  13m    26.9M        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  54aceb24e802  
ceph-exporter.node06  node06                    running (13m)     3m ago  13m    27.0M        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  895f2924d8bc  
crash.node01          node01                    running (89m)     2m ago  89m    6665k        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  9123d699b6a9  
crash.node02          node02                    running (19m)     7m ago  19m    7379k        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  323988bc0599  
crash.node03          node03                    running (19m)     7m ago  19m    7348k        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  de5041df3615  
crash.node04          node04                    running (14m)     3m ago  14m    7375k        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  869911b5699e  
crash.node05          node05                    running (13m)     3m ago  13m    7516k        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  216d5290bf12  
crash.node06          node06                    running (13m)     3m ago  13m    7363k        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  53f443a15f0c  
grafana.node01        node01  *:3000            running (88m)     2m ago  88m    82.8M        -  9.4.7    2c41d148cca3  177cc82138c4  
mgr.node01.gvhmuc     node01  *:9283,8765,8443  running (89m)     2m ago  89m     517M        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  673b69975d89  
mgr.node02.gpynef     node02  *:8443,9283,8765  running (19m)     7m ago  19m     437M        -  18.2.0   10237bca3285  d62a305af919  
mon.node01            node01                    running (89m)     2m ago  89m    72.1M    2048M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  b0001264bf0e  
mon.node02            node02                    running (19m)     7m ago  19m    49.7M    2048M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  ac9bd2a4215b  
mon.node03            node03                    running (19m)     7m ago  19m    44.0M    2048M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  a0593be7e384  
mon.node04            node04                    running (14m)     3m ago  14m    48.5M    2048M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  2cc1fd067cc4  
mon.node06            node06                    running (13m)     3m ago  13m    45.8M    2048M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  0be533449aa9  
node-exporter.node01  node01  *:9100            running (88m)     2m ago  88m    15.3M        -  1.5.0    0da6a335fe13  0be1d3e87064  
node-exporter.node02  node02  *:9100            running (19m)     7m ago  19m    16.0M        -  1.5.0    0da6a335fe13  e9df4de91167  
node-exporter.node03  node03  *:9100            running (18m)     7m ago  19m    15.5M        -  1.5.0    0da6a335fe13  23d2747cb798  
node-exporter.node04  node04  *:9100            running (14m)     3m ago  14m    14.3M        -  1.5.0    0da6a335fe13  b60b52f3340a  
node-exporter.node05  node05  *:9100            running (13m)     3m ago  13m    16.3M        -  1.5.0    0da6a335fe13  e0754f0b7925  
node-exporter.node06  node06  *:9100            running (13m)     3m ago  13m    15.7M        -  1.5.0    0da6a335fe13  b250510fcff0  
osd.0                 node04                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    52.3M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  cf835e2802b3  
osd.1                 node05                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    52.5M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  35f0f29eef81  
osd.2                 node06                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    53.5M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  624ebe681e44  
osd.3                 node06                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    55.1M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  66b8b4938900  
osd.4                 node05                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    58.6M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  6b1d6052e588  
osd.5                 node04                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    59.0M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  e40e66c1c327  
osd.6                 node06                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    58.9M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  57b06148664c  
osd.7                 node05                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    54.4M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  5a624c61464a  
osd.8                 node04                    running (6m)      3m ago   6m    53.3M    4096M  18.2.0   10237bca3285  03a0cdaeb9e4  
prometheus.node01     node01  *:9095            running (13m)     2m ago  88m    68.0M        -  2.43.0   a07b618ecd1d  7d6ae3a65490

Similarly, you can check Ceph service containers created on other nodes;

docker ps

Or list their systemd unit files;

systemctl list-units 'ceph*'

Accessing Ceph Admin Web User Interface

The bootstrap commands give a url and credentials to use to access the Ceph admin web user interface;

...
Ceph Dashboard is now available at:

	     URL: https://node01:8443/
	    User: admin
	Password: amw3p3yy2e

Since we are running multiple nodes, Ceph manager is deployed on two nodes for HA. From the Ceph status command, ceph -s, you can see under services, that one manager node is active while the other one is on standby.

  services:
    mon: 5 daemons, quorum node01,node02,node03,node04,node06 (age 15m)
    mgr: node01.gvhmuc(active, since 90m), standbys: node02.gpynef
    osd: 9 osds: 9 up (since 7m), 9 in (since 8m)

Thus, open the browser and navigate to the URL above. Or you can even use the cephadm node IP address if you want..

Open the port on firewall if firewall is running.

Enter the provided credential and reset your admin password and proceed to login to Ceph Admin dashboard.

How to Deploy Ceph Storage Cluster on AlmaLinux

If you want, you can activate the telemetry module by clicking Activate button or just from the CLI;

ceph telemetry on --license sharing-1-0

Telemetry can be disabled at any time with:

ceph telemetry off

Go through other Ceph menu to see more about Ceph.

Ceph Dashboard;

How to Deploy Ceph storage cluster on AlmaLinux

Under the Cluster Menu, you can see quite more details; hosts, disks, OSDs etc.

How to Deploy Ceph storage cluster on AlmaLinux

You can also monitor Ceph performance via Grafana, https://manager-IP:3000.

Sample Ceph cluster dashboards;

ceph cluster grafana dashboard

Cluster;

ceph cluster dashboards

There you go. That marks the end of our tutorial on how to deploy Ceph storage cluster on AlmaLinux.

Reference

Deploying a new ceph cluster

Other Tutorials

Configure and Use Ceph Block Device on Linux Clients

How to Reset Ceph Dashboard Admin Password

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Kifarunix
Linux Certified Engineer, with a passion for open-source technology and a strong understanding of Linux systems. With experience in system administration, troubleshooting, and automation, I am skilled in maintaining and optimizing Linux infrastructure.

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