Install and Setup Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 22.04

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Follow through this post to learn how to install and setup Ceph Storage cluster on Ubuntu 22.04. Ceph is a scalable distributed storage system designed for cloud infrastructure and web-scale object storage. It can also be used to provide Ceph Block Storage as well as Ceph File System storage.

As of this writing, CEPH Quincy is the current stable release.

Install and Setup Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 22.04

Ceph Storage Cluster setup requires at least one Ceph Monitor, Ceph Manager, and Ceph OSD (Object Storage Daemon) and may be Ceph Metadata Server for providing Ceph File System Storage.

All these components perform various roles;

  • Ceph Admin node (cephadm)
    • It is the node on which Ceph deployment script (cephadm) is installed on.
  • Ceph Object Storage Daemon (OSD, ceph-osd)
    • It provides ceph object data store.
    • It also performs data replication , data recovery, rebalancing and provides storage information to Ceph Monitor.
  • Ceph Monitor (ceph-mon)
    • It maintains maps of the entire ceph cluster state including monitor map, manager map, the OSD map, and the CRUSH map.
    • manages authentication between daemons and clients
  • Ceph Manager (ceph-mgr)
    • keeps track of runtime metrics and the current state of the Ceph cluster, including storage utilization, current performance metrics, and system load.
    • manages and exposes Ceph cluster web dashboard and API.
    • At least two managers are required for HA.

Ceph Quincy Depolyment Requirements

Below are the requirements for deploying Ceph Quincy storage cluster;

Prepare Ceph Nodes for Ceph Storage Cluster Deployment on Ubuntu 22.04

Attach Storage Disks to Ceph OSD Nodes

Each Ceph OSD node in our architecture above has unallocated LVM logical volumes of 4 GB each. Check how to create Logical volumes in Linux.

lvs

Sample output;

  LV        VG        Attr       LSize   Pool Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
  ceph-lv   ceph-vg   -wi-a-----  <4.00g                                                    

Run System Update

On all the nodes, update your system package cache.

apt update

Set hostnames and Update Hosts File

To begin with, setup up your nodes hostnames;

hostnamectl set-hostname ceph-admin

Set the respective hostnames on other nodes.

If you are not using DNS for name resolution, then update the hosts file accordingly.

For example, in our setup, each node hosts file should contain the lines below;

less /etc/hosts
...
192.168.56.124 ceph-admin
192.168.56.129 ceph-mon
192.168.56.130 ceph-osd1
192.168.56.131 ceph-osd2

Set Time Synchronization

Ensure that the time on all the nodes is synchronized. Thus install Chrony on each and set it up such that all nodes uses the same NTP server.

apt install chrony -y

Edit the Chrony configuration and set your NTP server by replacing the NTP server pools with your NTP server address.

vim /etc/chrony/chrony.conf

Define your NTP Server. Replace ntp.kifarunix-demo.com with your respective NTP server address.

...
# pool ntp.ubuntu.com        iburst maxsources 4
# pool 0.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org iburst maxsources 1
# pool 1.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org iburst maxsources 1
# pool 2.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org iburst maxsources 2
pool ntp.kifarunix-demo.com iburst
...

Restart Chronyd

systemctl restart chronyd

Install SSH Server on Each Node

Ceph deployment through cephadm utility requires that an SSH server is installed on all the nodes.

Ubuntu 22.04 comes with SSH server already installed. If not, install and start it as follows;

apt install openssh-server
systemctl enable --now sshd

Install Python3

Python is required to deploy Ceph on Ubuntu 22.04. Python 3 is installed by default on Ubuntu 22.04

Create Ceph Deployment User on Ceph Admin Node

On the ceph admin node, create a ceph user with sudo rights required for installing ceph packages and configurations as shown below. Do not use the username ceph as it is reserved.

Replace cephadmin username accordingly.

useradd -m -s /bin/bash cephadmin
passwd cephadmin
echo "cephadmin ALL=(ALL:ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL" >> /etc/sudoers.d/cephadmin
visudo -cf /etc/sudoers.d/cephadmin

If you, /etc/sudoers.d/cephadmin: parsed OK, then proceed. Otherwise, fix any error.

chmod 0440 /etc/sudoers.d/cephadmin

Install Docker CE on Each Node

The cephadm utility is used to bootstrap a Ceph cluster and to manage ceph daemons deployed with systemd and Docker containers.

Thus, on each Node, run the command below to install Docker CE;

sudo apt install apt-transport-https ca-certificates curl gnupg-agent software-properties-common -y
curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo gpg --dearmor > /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/docker-ce.gpg
echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) stable" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker-ce.list
sudo apt update
sudo apt install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io -y
sudo systemctl enable --now docker

Enable Root Login on Other Nodes from Ceph Admin Node

In order to add other nodes to the Ceph cluster using Ceph Admin Node, you will have to use the root user account.

Thus, on the Ceph Monitor, Ceph OSD nodes, enable root login from the Ceph Admin node;

vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Add the configs below, replacing the IP address for Ceph Admin accordingly.

Match Address 192.168.56.124
        PermitRootLogin yes

Reload ssh;

systemctl reload sshd

Setup Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 22.04

Install cephadm Utility on Ceph Admin Node

On the Ceph admin node, you need to install the cephadm utility.

Cephadm installs and manages a Ceph cluster using containers and systemd, with tight integration with the CLI and dashboard GUI.

  • cephadm only supports Octopus and newer releases.
  • cephadm is fully integrated with the new orchestration API and fully supports the new CLI and dashboard features to manage cluster deployment.
  • cephadm requires container support (podman or docker) and Python 3.

You can check other recommended methods of deploying Ceph.

To install cephadm on Ubuntu 22.04;

sudo wget -q https://github.com/ceph/ceph/raw/quincy/src/cephadm/cephadm -P /usr/bin/
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/cephadm

Setup Ceph Cluster Monitor On Ceph Admin Node

Your nodes are now ready to deploy a Ceph storage cluster. To begin with, switch to cephadmin user;

su - cephadmin
whoami

Output;

cephadmin

Initialize Ceph Cluster monitor on Ceph Admin Node

It is now time to bootstrap the Ceph cluster in order to create the first Ceph monitor daemon on Ceph Admin node, run the command below, substituting the IP address of the Ceph Admin Node accordingly.

sudo cephadm bootstrap --mon-ip 192.168.56.124
Creating directory /etc/ceph for ceph.conf
Verifying podman|docker is present...
Verifying lvm2 is present...
Verifying time synchronization is in place...
Unit systemd-timesyncd.service is enabled and running
Repeating the final host check...
docker (/usr/bin/docker) is present
systemctl is present
lvcreate is present
Unit systemd-timesyncd.service is enabled and running
Host looks OK
Cluster fsid: 7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4
Verifying IP 192.168.56.124 port 3300 ...
Verifying IP 192.168.56.124 port 6789 ...
Mon IP `192.168.56.124` is in CIDR network `192.168.56.0/24`
Mon IP `192.168.56.124` is in CIDR network `192.168.56.0/24`
Internal network (--cluster-network) has not been provided, OSD replication will default to the public_network
Pulling container image quay.io/ceph/ceph:v17...
Ceph version: ceph version 17.2.0 (43e2e60a7559d3f46c9d53f1ca875fd499a1e35e) quincy (stable)
Extracting ceph user uid/gid from container image...
Creating initial keys...
Creating initial monmap...
Creating mon...
Waiting for mon to start...
Waiting for mon...
mon is available
Assimilating anything we can from ceph.conf...
Generating new minimal ceph.conf...
Restarting the monitor...
Setting mon public_network to 192.168.56.0/24
Wrote config to /etc/ceph/ceph.conf
Wrote keyring to /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring
Creating mgr...
Verifying port 9283 ...
Waiting for mgr to start...
Waiting for mgr...
mgr not available, waiting (1/15)...
mgr not available, waiting (2/15)...
mgr not available, waiting (3/15)...
mgr is available
Enabling cephadm module...
Waiting for the mgr to restart...
Waiting for mgr epoch 5...
mgr epoch 5 is available
Setting orchestrator backend to cephadm...
Generating ssh key...
Wrote public SSH key to /etc/ceph/ceph.pub
Adding key to [email protected] authorized_keys...
Adding host ceph-admin...
Deploying mon service with default placement...
Deploying mgr service with default placement...
Deploying crash service with default placement...
Deploying prometheus service with default placement...
Deploying grafana service with default placement...
Deploying node-exporter service with default placement...
Deploying alertmanager service with default placement...
Enabling the dashboard module...
Waiting for the mgr to restart...
Waiting for mgr epoch 9...
mgr epoch 9 is available
Generating a dashboard self-signed certificate...
Creating initial admin user...
Fetching dashboard port number...
Ceph Dashboard is now available at:

	     URL: https://ceph-admin:8443/
	    User: admin
	Password: ej0hzlh4ks

Enabling client.admin keyring and conf on hosts with "admin" label
Saving cluster configuration to /var/lib/ceph/7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4/config directory
Enabling autotune for osd_memory_target
You can access the Ceph CLI as following in case of multi-cluster or non-default config:

	sudo /usr/bin/cephadm shell --fsid 7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4 -c /etc/ceph/ceph.conf -k /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring

Or, if you are only running a single cluster on this host:

	sudo /usr/bin/cephadm shell 

Please consider enabling telemetry to help improve Ceph:

	ceph telemetry on

For more information see:

	https://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/mgr/telemetry/

Bootstrap complete.

According to the documentation, the bootstrap command;

  • Create a monitor and manager daemon for the new cluster on the localhost.
  • Generate a new SSH key for the Ceph cluster and add it to the root user’s /root/.ssh/authorized_keys file.
  • Write a copy of the public key to /etc/ceph/ceph.pub.
  • Write a minimal configuration file to /etc/ceph/ceph.conf. This file is needed to communicate with the new cluster.
  • Write a copy of the client.admin administrative (privileged!) secret key to /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring.
  • Add the _admin label to the bootstrap host. By default, any host with this label will (also) get a copy of /etc/ceph/ceph.conf and /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring.

Ceph admin containers are installed;

sudo docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE                                     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES
21903dc86c78   quay.io/prometheus/alertmanager:v0.23.0   "/bin/alertmanager -…"   6 minutes ago    Up 6 minutes              ceph-7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4-alertmanager-ceph-admin
b1089c966910   quay.io/ceph/ceph-grafana:8.3.5           "/bin/sh -c 'grafana…"   6 minutes ago    Up 6 minutes              ceph-7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4-grafana-ceph-admin
2d244538efe7   quay.io/prometheus/prometheus:v2.33.4     "/bin/prometheus --c…"   7 minutes ago    Up 7 minutes              ceph-7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4-prometheus-ceph-admin
4d7de2cabc17   quay.io/prometheus/node-exporter:v1.3.1   "/bin/node_exporter …"   8 minutes ago    Up 8 minutes              ceph-7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4-node-exporter-ceph-admin
037bb43a7c17   quay.io/ceph/ceph                         "/usr/bin/ceph-crash…"   11 minutes ago   Up 11 minutes             ceph-7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4-crash-ceph-admin
f79bcf2f95a0   quay.io/ceph/ceph:v17                     "/usr/bin/ceph-mgr -…"   14 minutes ago   Up 14 minutes             ceph-7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4-mgr-ceph-admin-qgwzfj
19df40c47f9a   quay.io/ceph/ceph:v17                     "/usr/bin/ceph-mon -…"   14 minutes ago   Up 14 minutes             ceph-7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4-mon-ceph-admin

Enable Ceph CLI

When bootstrap command completes, a command for accessing Ceph CLI is provided. Execute that command to access Ceph CLI;

sudo /usr/bin/cephadm shell --fsid 7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4 \
-c /etc/ceph/ceph.conf -k /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring

This drops you onto Ceph Docker CLI;

You can run the ceph commands eg to check the Ceph status;

sudo ceph -s
  cluster:
    id:     643e4b1e-e679-11ec-ad5a-ad66b59a3777
    health: HEALTH_WARN
            OSD count 0 < osd_pool_default_size 3
 
  services:
    mon: 1 daemons, quorum ceph-admin (age 17m)
    mgr: ceph-admin.nryrev(active, since 5m)
    osd: 0 osds: 0 up, 0 in
 
  data:
    pools:   0 pools, 0 pgs
    objects: 0 objects, 0 B
    usage:   0 B used, 0 B / 0 B avail
    pgs: 

You can exit the docker CLI by pressing Ctrl+D or type exit and press ENTER.

There are other ways in which you can access the Ceph CLI. For example, you can run Ceph CLI commands using cephadm command.

sudo cephadm shell -- ceph -s

Or You could install Ceph CLI tools on the host (As of this writing, however, there are no repos for ceph-common for Ubuntu 22.04 Jammy, hence the install commands below do not work at the moment.);

sudo cephadm add-repo --release quincy
sudo cephadm install ceph-common

With this method, then you can just ran the Ceph commands easily;

sudo ceph -s

Copy SSH Keys to Other Ceph Nodes

Copy the SSH key generated by the bootstrap command to Ceph Monitor, OSD1 and OSD2 root user account. Ensure Root Login is permitted on the Ceph monitor node.

sudo ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub [email protected]
sudo ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub [email protected]
sudo ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub [email protected]

Drop into Ceph CLI

Now that we weren't able to install the ceph-common package, let's first drop into the Ceph CLI before we can proceed.

sudo /usr/bin/cephadm shell --fsid 7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4 \
-c /etc/ceph/ceph.conf -k /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring

Add Ceph Monitor Node to Ceph Cluster

At this point, we have just provisioned Ceph Admin node only. You can list all the hosts known to the Ceph ochestrator (ceph-mgr) using the command below

ceph orch host ls

Sample output;

HOST        ADDR           LABELS  STATUS  
ceph-admin  192.168.59.31  _admin 

So next, add the Ceph Monitor node to the cluster.

Assuming you have copied the Ceph SSH public key, execute the command below to add the Ceph Monitor to the cluster;

ceph orch host add ceph-mon

Sample command output;

Added host 'ceph-mon' with addr '192.168.56.129'

Next, label the host with its role (remember our ceph-monitor also doubles up as an OSD, hence label mon/osd below);

ceph orch host label add ceph-mon mon/osd

Add Ceph OSD Nodes to Ceph Cluster

Similarly, add the OSD Nodes to the cluster;

ceph orch host add ceph-osd1
ceph orch host add ceph-osd2

Define their respective labels;

for i in {1..2}; do ceph orch host label add ceph-osd$i osd$i; done

List Ceph Cluster Nodes;

You can list the Ceph cluster nodes;

ceph orch host ls

Sample output;

HOST        ADDR            LABELS   STATUS  
ceph-admin  192.168.56.124  _admin           
ceph-mon    192.168.56.129  mon/osd          
ceph-osd1   192.168.56.130  osd1             
ceph-osd2   192.168.56.131  osd2             
4 hosts in cluster

Attach Logical Storage Volumes to Ceph OSD Nodes

In our setup, we have unallocated logical volume of 4 GB on each OSD node to be used as a backstore for OSD daemons.

To attach the logical volumes to the OSD node, run the command below. Replace ceph-vg/ceph-lv with Volume group and logical volume names accordingly.

ceph orch daemon add osd ceph-mon:ceph-vg/ceph-lv

Repeat the same for the other OSD nodes.

ceph orch daemon add osd ceph-osd1:ceph-vg/ceph-lv
ceph orch daemon add osd ceph-osd2:ceph-vg/ceph-lv

The Ceph Nodes are now ready for OSD use.

Check Ceph Cluster Health

To verify the health status of the ceph cluster, simply execute the command ceph s on each OSD node.

To check Ceph cluster health status from the admin node;

ceph -s

Sample output;

  cluster:
    id:     7d9f97d0-e718-11ec-a3f2-9d53aa092ff4
    health: HEALTH_OK
 
  services:
    mon: 4 daemons, quorum ceph-admin,ceph-mon,ceph-osd2,ceph-osd1 (age 3m)
    mgr: ceph-admin.qgwzfj(active, since 14m), standbys: ceph-mon.lmmtlr
    osd: 3 osds: 2 up (since 15m), 2 in (since 19s)
 
  data:
    pools:   0 pools, 0 pgs
    objects: 0 objects, 0 B
    usage:   11 MiB used, 30 GiB / 30 GiB avail
    pgs:   

Accessing Ceph Admin Web User Interface

The bootstrap commands give a url and credentials to use to access the Ceph admin web user interface;

Ceph Dashboard is now available at:

	     URL: https://ceph-admin:8443/
	    User: admin
	Password: ej0hzlh4ks

Thus, open the browser and navigate to the URL.

Open the port on firewall if any is running.

Enter the provided credential and reset your admin password and proceed to login to Ceph Admin UI.

Install and Setup Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 22.04

If you want, you can activate the telemetry module by clicking Activate button or just from the CLI;

sudo cephadm shell -- ceph telemetry on --license sharing-1-0

Go through other Ceph menu to see more about Ceph.

Install and Setup Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 22.04

Ceph Dashboard;

ceph dashboard

Under the Cluster Menu, you can see quite other details; hosts, disks, OSDs etc.

There you go. That marks the end of our tutorial on how to install and setup Ceph storage cluster on Ubuntu 22.04.

Reference

Deploying a new ceph cluster

Other Tutorials

Install and setup GlusterFS on Ubuntu 22.04/Ubuntu 20.04

Easily Install and Configure Samba File Server on Ubuntu 22.04

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